Category Archives: WRITING INFO:

Writer’s Tools

Fountain Pen Set

As Writer’s we like putting pen to paper, so to speak.  Have you not wondered where the fountain pen, biro or pencil originated from?  These instruments which we use daily…

The idea of writing instruments designed to carry their own ink supply had been a theoretical idea, but it was not until the beginning of the 1700’s, that the theory was being put into practice.

THE FOUNTAIN PEN: The first fountain pen was designed by M.Bion a Frenchman in 1702, but it was more than a 100 years later in 1809. When American Peregrin Williamson, patented his design in 1809.

John Scheffer obtained a British patent for his design of 1819, for his idea of a half quill – half metal pen.

Then in 1831 John Jacob Parker patented his design of a self-filling pen, but it was the design of Lewis Waterman, who patented the first practical fountain pen in 1884.

If it had not been for early fountain-pen inventors; using the hollow channel of a birds feather to create an ink reservoir, to replace the constant use of dipping into an ink well. The Romans created a reed style of pen, from the hollow tubular-stems of marsh grasses. By cutting one end to create a nib or point, with which to write with, they filled the stem with ink, and squeezed the stems, thus forcing the fluid into the nib. We would never have started a creative revolution in the design of new pens. Another design was to use a reservoir made of hard rubber, and fit a metal nib at the bottom. Unfortunately this did not have the required effect of producing a smooth writing instrument.

It was Lewis Waterman an insurance salesman, who was inspired to improve upon the early fountain-pen design, by adding an air hole in the nib, and three grooves into the feed mechanism.  His mechanism consisted of the nib, which made contact with the paper, a feed to control ink flow.  The aim of the barrel was to hold the nib, protect the reservoir, which in turn the writer holds.

By now we had reached a stage in pen designs, where they all contained some form of internal reservoir to hold ink.

The pens would have an internal reservoir, which would consist of a self-filling rubber sack, opened at one end.  To fill with ink, the reservoir was squeezed by using an internal plate, and then the pen’s nib inserted into the ink.  As pressure was released so the reservoir would fill up.

The period between the late 1800’s through to the mid 1900’s, saw a battle as pen companies, each sought to become the brand leader in reservoir pen designs.  The earliest known design of that time would be the Eyedropper, which had no internal filling mechanism.  Most open by unscrewing a section of the pen, after which the barrel is filled with ink using an eyedropper.  As long as the seal was tight, no ink should leak out.

Parker introduced the Button Filler, which had an external button connected to the internal pressure plate.  Then Walter Sheaffer responded by designing the Lever Filler, a slight variation on the Button Filler, for it used an external lever, that fitted flush with the pen.  Back came Parker, not to be outdone, with their Click Filler, using two protruding tabs, to deflate reservoir, and they clicked when reservoir was full.  Then Waterman introduced the Coin Filler, with slot in barrel, and by use of a coin, one could deflate and fill reservoir.

Some of the early inks were known to corrode the steel nib tips, which led to the introduction of a gold tip.  However, gold also had its problems; it was too soft, for the purpose of writing.  To overcome this design flaw, they used Iridium (A hard yellow-white chemical element that occurs in platinum ores) on the tip of the nib.

Early nibs were available in straight, oblique and italic designs.  As the years went by, and the need to communicate grew, so did the demand in pens, and a larger selection of pen nibs; wider, longer and shaped.

Everything changed in the early 1950’s, with the introduction of a new range of fountain pens, without the need of a reservoir.  They would revolutise the design for the future.

The reservoir had gone, to be replaced with a disposable ink cartridge, originally made of glass, then later of a rubbery plastic.  When they arrived on the scene, they were an immediate success … sixty years on and they are still going.

Ballpoint Pens - Wikipedia

THE BALLPOINT PEN: Laszlo Biro a Hungarian journalist, observed newspaper ink dried quickly, and was smudge free.  His creative juices were activated, and by 1938 he had invented the first Ballpoint pen.

The thicker ink used for newspapers would not flow unaided, which led to a small ball-bearing being fitted to the pens tip.  The idea was, as the ball rotated it collected ink from the reservoir and placed it on the paper.  So simple, yet so clever.

In 1940, Laszlo Biro and his brother George emigrated to Argentina, and applied for a new patent in 1943, and sold licensing rights to the British, as the Royal Air Force needed a pen that would not leak at high altitudes.  The success of this pen brought it to the forefront of pen design.

Laszlo and George Biro went on to form the Eterpen Company and commercialised the Biro pen, which was hailed as an ultimate success.  One of its main advantages was that it only needed re-filling once a year.

The Biro brothers neglected to apply for a U.S.Patent.  As World War Two was coming to an end, so a new battle was just starting: The Battle of The Ballpoint Pens.

For it was in May 1945, the Eversharp Company joined forces with Eberhand – Faber acquiring Biro Pens of Argentina and rebranded the product as Eversharp CA (Capillary Action).

Milton Reynolds saw the Biro Pen whilst in Buenos Aires, and returned to America with a few of them.  By October 1945, Reynolds had copied the Biro design, thus breaking Eversharp’s patent rights, and started the Reynolds Pen Company.  The release of this pen was an overwhelming success.  It was released on the 29th October 1945 priced at $12.50 and went on to sell $100,000 worth on the first day.

Eversharp sued Reynolds for breach of patent rights.

By December 1945, England’s Miles-Martin Pen Company had stepped in releasing their own design of the Biro Pen.

Advertisers claimed these pens would write for two years before the need to refill.  Sales rocketed, but it was not long before problems arose; some leaked, some worked some of the time, and others were known to fail all together

The consumer was dis-satisfied with the ballpoint pen, and sales nose dived, and by 1951, the ballpoint pen died a consumer’s death.

In January 1954, Parker Pens tossed their hat into the ring, by introducing their version of the Ballpoint Pen, known as the Jotter, which worked, so the battle for the ballpoint pen had been won.  Then in 1957 they introduced a tungsten carbide textured ball bearing in their pens.

A French Baron named Bich, removed the h from his name, and started the BIC Pen Company in the 1950’s, and by the end of the 50’s had acquired 70% of the European market.

By 1958, BIC a major player in the pen market had acquired 60% of Waterman Pens and by 1960 owned Waterman Pens outright.

BIC Ballpoint Pen Company dominates the market, selling cheap pens, whilst the likes of Parker, Sheaffer and Waterman sell the expensive Ballpoint Pens.

Pencils Rubbers Sharpeners

THE PENCIL: In 1564, in an area of Seat Waite Valley in Borrow Dale, England; Graphite which is a form of carbon was discovered, and so the first pencils were produced.

The main break through into the world of pencil technology came in 1795, when French chemist, Nicolas Conte used a mixture of fired clay and graphite before housing it in a wooden case.

Pencils got their name from the old English word meaning ‘brush’.  Conte’s method of Kiln firing powdered graphite and clay allowed pencils to be made to any hardness or softness.  The variations have changed over the years: H – 2H – 3H – HB – B – 2B – 3B and so the list goes on.

In the early days, pencils were sharpened by means of knives, similar to that used to shape feather quills.  Then in 1828 a French mathematician, Bernard Lassimone applied for a patent on an invention to sharpen pencils.  Then in 1847 Therry des Estwaux invented the first manual pencil sharpener, and the design is similar to that found in most stationers to-day.

John Lee Love an American designed the “Love Sharpener” a simple design yet portable.  The pencil would be inserted into an opening within the sharpener and rotated by hand.  Shavings would remain within the sharpener.  This was patented in November 1897.

In the early part of the 1940’s Raymond Loewy the first electric pencil sharpener, released by the Hammacher Schlemmer Company.

According to French scientist Charles Marie de la Condamine, South American Indian Tribes were using a form of rubber for attaching feathers to their bodies.  So it was in 1736, he brought a sample to the Institute de France in its natural form, for further studies on its possible applications.

Sir Joseph Priestley scientist stated in 1770 that he had observed a substance being used to wipe pencil marks from paper.  This same substance was brought back to France by Condamine.  Early types of rubber had their limitations, for it had a tendency to rot and crumble.

In came Edward Naime an English engineer and in 1770 he introduced rubber onto the market.

Charles Goodyear stepped into the frame in 1839, with his process to stop rubber crumbling, and make it a long lasting product.  He named his process: Vulcanization, after Vulcan, the roman god of fire.  In 1844 he patented his process.  Now that rubber had become a stable product, rubber or erasers became a product for removal of pencil marks on paper.

What I find quite interesting though.  Before we started using rubber or erasers to remove pencil marks from paper, our ancestors had used breadcrumbs.

Wikipedia Images


My Poetry Guide…


Poem Structure – Lines and Stanzas:

Poem structure – the line is a building block

The basic building-block of prose (writing that isn’t poetry) is the sentence. But poetry has something else — the poetic line. Poets decide how long each line is going to be and where it will break off. That’s why poetry often has a shape like this:

Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old Time is still a-flying:
And this same flower that smiles to-day
To-morrow will be dying.

No matter where it is printed, the first line always ends with the word “may” and the second line with the word “a-flying” because the poet has written it this way. If you print a piece of prose such as a short story, the length of the lines will depend on the font size, the paper size, margins, etc. But in poetry, the line is part of the work of art you have created. The length of the lines and the line breaks are important choices that will affect many aspects of the reader’s experience:

  • The sound of the poem – When people read your poem out loud, or in their heads, they will pause slightly at the end of each line.
  • The speed of reading – Shortening or lengthening the lines can speed up or slow down the way people read.
  • How the poem looks on the page – Does the poem look light, delicate, with a lot of white space around the lines? Or are the lines packed solidly together?
  • Emphasis – Words at the end of a line seem more important than words in the middle.

Poem structure – types of lines

If you are writing a poem in a standard form such as a sonnet, your choices about line length are somewhat restricted by the rules of the form. But you still have to decide how to fit the ideas and sentences of your poem over the lines. When you fit natural stopping points in a sentence to the end of your line, the reader takes a little pause. When a sentence or phrase continues from one line to the next, the reader feels pulled along. If your line break interrupts a sentence or idea in a surprising place, the effect can be startling, suspenseful, or can highlight a certain phrase or double-meaning.

Lines that finish at ends of sentences or at natural stopping points (for example, at a comma) are called end-stopped lines. Here’s an example:

Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old Time is still a-flying:

Lines that in the middle of the natural flow of a sentence are called run-on or enjambed lines. Here’s an example:

But being spent, the worse, and worst
Times still succeed the former.

If you are writing in free verse, you have even more decisions to make than a poet writing in a traditional form. You can decide to use short lines or long lines, or to vary the length. You can decide to stack your lines evenly along the left margin, or to use a looser or more graphical form. Some poets even write poems that are in the shape of the thing they are writing about, for example, a circular poem about the moon. You have many options, but these choices should never be made randomly.

Poem structure – stanzas:

In prose, ideas are usually grouped together in paragraphs. In poems, lines are often grouped together into what are called stanzas. Like paragraphs, stanzas are often used to organize ideas.

For example, here are the two final stanzas. In the first of these stanzas, he is explaining that being young is great, but life just gets worse and worse as you get older. In the second one, he is saying: “So get married before you’re too old and have lost your chance.”

That age is best which is the first,
When youth and blood are warmer;
But being spent, the worse, and worst
Times still succeed the former.

Then be not coy, but use your time,
And while ye may, go marry:
For having lost but once your prime,
You may for ever tarry.

Poem structure – decisions about form:

So many decisions to make — line length, line breaks, arrangement, speed, rhythm. How should you choose? The right form for your poem depends on, and works with, the poem’s content, or what it’s about. If the poem is about flying, you probably don’t want lines that feel slow and heavy. If you’re writing a sad poem, short bouncy lines might not be the way to go.

You may feel overwhelmed by so many issues to think about. How can your inspiration flow freely if you have to keep track of all of these aspects of a poem? The answer is to do the work in two stages.

  1. First, let your ideas flow.
  2. Then, go back to the poem later and work on improving the poem structure and form.

In the second stage, it’s a good idea to experiment a lot. Try breaking the lines and different ways and compare the effects. Try changing the order of things. Try reorganizing things to move different words to the end of the lines so that the reader’s attention goes to them. You’ve got nothing to lose — you can always go back to an earlier version.

As you go through this process, ask yourself:

  • What is my poem about?
  • What feeling or mood do I want the reader to have?
  • Do I want the poem to move quickly or slowly? Are there places I want it to speed up or slow down?
  • What words or phrases do I want to highlight?

There are a lot of things to consider. But the more poetry you write — and read, the more natural and instinctive some of these decisions about poem structure will become to you.

Poetry Meter:

Meter is a way of measuring a line of poetry based on the rhythm of the words. But why should you care?

  • As a reader, knowing about meter helps you understand how a poem is put together. You can see what rules the poet was following and how he or she used or went outside those rules. This lets you guess what was going through the poet’s mind.
  • If you want to write poetry, knowing about meter will make you a better poet. First, it helps you understand what poets have done in the past, so that you can learn from them. It allows you to use traditional forms such as sonnets. Even if you prefer to write in free verse, you should learn about traditional forms. Being aware of traditions gives you more flexibility to use aspects of them when you want to, or to “break the rules” in a more interesting way.

Poetry meter – stressed syllables and the iambic foot

Meter measures lines of poetry based on stressed and unstressed syllables. I’ll explain. When we speak, we put the stress on a certain part of each word. For example, take the words “apple” and “fantastic.”

  • When we say the word “apple,” we stress the first syllable, the “ap” part. We say “AP-ple,” how not “ap-PLE.”
  • When we say the word “fantastic,” we stress the second syllable. We say, “fan-TAS-tic,” not “FAN-tas-tic” or “fan-tas-TIC.”

Poetry meter – meter and rhythm:

When you read metered poetry, such as a sonnet in iambic pentameter, you may notice that the meter is sometimes sounds uneven or is hard to hear. Meter is just a form of measurement. The real rhythm of a poem is more complicated than that:

  • None of us talk like robots. We give certain words and sounds more emphasis than others in a sentence, depending on a number of factors including the meaning of the words and our own personal speaking style. So not all of the stressed syllables have the same amount of stress, etc.
  • We pause at the ends of ideas or the ends of sentences, even if these occur partway through a poetic line. So this creates a rhythmically variation. When the sentence ends or has a natural pause in the middle of a line of poetry, that’s called a caesura.
  • Poets vary meter or make exceptions in order to create desired rhythmic effects.

All of these elements combine to give each poem a unique music.

How to Write a Sonnet:

What’s a sonnet?

Sonnets are a kind of rhymed poem written in iambic pentameter.

An iamb is a rhythmic unit that includes an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one. It has the rhythm, as in the words “about,” or “predict,” or “parade.” Iambic pentameter is a line of poetry consisting of five iambs. Here are two sentences in iambic pentameter:

There are different kinds of sonnets, but I’m going to talk about the Shakespearian sonnet, also called the English sonnet. The Shakespearian sonnet has fourteen lines in iambic pentameter that are divided into three groups of four lines and one group of two lines.

When a rhyme scheme is written in this way, each of the letters stands for one line. An “a” line rhymes with another “a” line, a “d” line rhymes with another “d” line, etc. So in a Shakespearian sonnet, the first line (a) rhymes with the third line (also called “a”). The second line (b) rhymes with the fourth line (also called “b”). The final two lines of the poem (gg) rhyme with each other.

Here’s an example of a sonnet by Shakespeare written in this form. I’ll mark each end rhyme with a letter:

Not from the stars do I my judgement pluck, (a)
And yet methinks I have astronomy, (b)
But not to tell of good, or evil luck, (a)
Of plagues, of dearths, or seasons’ quality,(b)
Nor can I fortune to brief minutes tell; (c)
Pointing to each his thunder, rain and wind, (d)
Or say with princes if it shall go well (c)
By oft predict that I in heaven find. (d)
But from thine eyes my knowledge I derive, (e)
And constant stars in them I read such art (f)
As truth and beauty shall together thrive (e)
If from thy self, to store thou wouldst convert: (f)
Or else of thee this I prognosticate, (g)
Thy end is truth’s and beauty’s doom and date. (g)

You may notice that some of the rhymes are not exact. For example, “art” and “convert” have the same final sound, but the vowel sounds (“a” in art and “e” in convert) are different. This is an example of what is called off-rhyme, or slant-rhyme

Rhyme Schemes:

Rhyme schemes and sound effects

Rhyme is an important tool in the poet’s toolbox. Traditional poetry forms such as sonnets often use rhyme in specific patterns. But even if you are writing free verse, you can use rhyme to when it helps you create desired effects.

Rhyme schemes – why rhyme

There are many reasons why you might choose to use rhyme:

  • To give pleasure. Rhyme, done well, is pleasing to the ear. It adds a musical element to the poem, and creates a feeling of “rightness,” of pieces fitting together. It also makes a poem easier to memorize, since the rhyme echoes in the reader’s mind afterward, like a melody.
  • To deepen meaning. Rhyming two or more words draws attention to them and connects them in the reader’s mind.
  • To strengthen form. In many traditional forms, a regular pattern of rhymes are at the ends of the lines. This means that even if the poem is being read out loud, listeners can easily hear where the lines end, can hear the shape of the poem.

Rhyme schemes – internal rhymes and end rhymes:

When the last word in a line of poetry rhymes with the last word in another line, this is called an end rhyme. Many traditional poetry forms use end rhymes.

When words in the middle of a line of poetry rhyme with each other, this is called an internal rhyme. Below is part of a poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Can you find the internal rhymes and end rhymes?

The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free;
We were the first that ever burst
Into that silent sea.

In this example, “blew”-“flew,” and “first”-“burst” are internal rhymes. “Free” and “sea” are end rhymes.

Rhyme schemes – true rhymes and off-rhymes

“Smart” and “art”; “fellow” and “yellow”; “surgery” and perjury” — these are all examples of true rhymes, or exact rhymes because the final vowel and consonant sounds (or the final syllables in the longer words) are exact matches to the ear.

“Fate” and “saint”; “work” and “spark”; are examples of off-rhymes, or slant-rhymes. In each case, part of the sound matches exactly, but part of it doesn’t. Off-rhymes use assonance and consonance:

  • Assonance is a similarity between vowel sounds (the sounds made by your breath, written with the letters a,e,i,o,u,and sometimes y) “Sing,”lean”, and “beet” are an example of assonance because they all have a similar “e” sound. Another example is “boat,”bone”, and “mole,” which all have a similiar “o” sound.
  • Consonance is a similarity between consonant sounds (consonants are the letters that you pronounce with your lips or tongue, not with your breath: b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,q,r,s,t,v,w,x,z and sometimes y). “Lake,”book”, and “back” are an example of consonance because they all have the same “K” sounds, even though the vowel sounds in these words are different. When the same consonants are used at the beginning of the word (for example, the words “sing” and “sell”), that is called alliteration.

You might choose to use off-rhymes instead of true rhymes, or in addition to them, to create a subtler effect.

Using off-rhymes also gives you more choices of words to rhyme. This often makes it possible to create more original or surprising rhymes. How many pop songs can you think of that rhyme “heart” with “apart?” And when you hear the words “heaven above” in a song, you can bet that the word “love” is lurking nearby. There are only a few words that rhyme with “love,” so they are used over and over again. Off-rhymes can help to remove some of that predictability so that you can come up with more interesting rhyme.

Rhyme schemes:

The pattern of rhymes in a poem is written with the letters a, b, c, d, etc. The first set of lines that rhyme at the end are marked with a. The second set are marked with b. So, in a poem with the rhyme scheme abab, the first line rhymes with the third line, and the second line rhymes with the fourth line. In a poem with the rhyme scheme abcb, the second line rhymes with the fourth line, but the first and third lines don’t rhyme with each other.

Here’s an example of a rhyme scheme:

GATHER ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old Time is still a-flying:
And this same flower that smiles to-day
To-morrow will be dying.

Here’s an example of an abcb rhyme scheme.

The itsy bitsy spider (a)
Went up the water spout (b)
Down came the rain (c)
And washed the spider out (b)

This one’s aabccb:

Little Miss Muffet
Sat on a tuffet
Eating her curds and whey.
Along came a spider
And sat down beside her
And frightened Miss Muffett away.

Here’s a sonnet by Shakespeare. The rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg.

My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun; (a)
Coral is far more red than her lips’ red; (b)
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;(a)
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.(b)
I have seen roses damask’d, red and white,(c)
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;(d)
And in some perfumes is there more delight(c)
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.(d)
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know (e)
That music hath a far more pleasing sound; (f)
I grant I never saw a goddess go; (e)
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground: (f)
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare (g)
As any she belied with false compare. (g)

Types of Poems:

Types of poems – how to write an acrostic poem

An acrostic poem is one where the first letters of the lines spell out a word or words if you read them vertically. For example, here is an acrostic poem by Edgar Allan Poe. You can see that if you read the first letters of the lines from top to bottom, they spell out the name “Elizabeth.”

Elizabeth it is in vain you say
“Love not” — thou sayest it in so sweet a way:
In vain those words from thee or L. E. L.
Zantippe’s talents had enforced so well:
Ah! if that language from thy heart arise,
Breathe it less gently forth — and veil thine eyes.
Endymion, recollect, when Luna tried
To cure his love — was cured of all beside —
His folly — pride — and passion — for he died.

Choose a word to be your poem’s topic, and write it vertically, from top to bottom. Then turn each letter into a line of poetry about that topic.


  • Write an acrostic using your own name, or the name of someone you love.
  • Write an acrostic about a month of the year, with the lines spelling out that month.

Types of poems – how to write blank verse

Blank verse is unrhymed poetry written in a regular meter, usually iambic pentameter.

An iamb is a rhythmic unit made of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one. Here are examples of two sentences written in iambic pentameter:

  • Forget the car, I’ll take the train to work.
  • At school today, he caught a nasty cold.

Much of Shakespeare’s dramatic work is written in blank verse. Here’s an example, taken from Hamlet. (You will see that Shakespeare’s use of iambic pentameter is not mechanical — he varies the rhythm for effect).

Good now, sit down, and tell me, he that knows,
Why this same strict and most observant watch
So nightly toils the subject of the land,
And why such daily cast of brazen cannon,
And foreign mart for implements of war;
Why such impress of shipwrights, whose sore task
Does not divide the Sunday from the week;
What might be toward, that this sweaty haste
Doth make the night joint-labourer with the day:
Who isn’t that can inform me?

Below are some lines written in iambic pentameter that you can use in your own poem, if you want, to start you off or give you ideas.

  • Last night I had a dream about a girl
  • Before today I didn’t know your name
  • The leaves were dark against the glowing sky
  • My mother always lied about her age

Types of poems – how to write a sestina

A sestina is a poem with 39 lines. The final words of the first six lines are repeated in the other lines, in a specific pattern. For an example of a sestina, look for Elizabeth Bishop’s famous poem called just “Sestina.” Sestinas can be very haunting to read. The same words keep coming back like echoes. And they are a lot of fun to write, like working out a puzzle.

But in case you prefer to read an explanation: here goes. A sestina is divided into six six-line stanzas, or sections, plus one final stanza of three lines. We’ll call the last word of the first line a, the last word of the second line b, etc. The order of these words in the first six stanzas is like this: abcdef faebdc cfdabe ecbfad deacfb bdfeca. In other words, the last word in Line 1 is also the last word in Line 8. The last word in Line 2 is also the last word in Line 10. Etc. The final stanza, or section of the poem has three lines. Each of these uses two of the words, one somewhere in the middle of the line and one at the end. The pattern of this section is: be dc fa.

Poem Types:

Poem types – how to write a narrative poem

A narrative poem is one that tells a story, true or imagined. It can have all of the elements of fiction, including:

  • A character or characters. The main character may be the same or different from the narrator, the voice that tells the story.
  • A setting – the place where the story happens.
  • A plot – what happens in the story.
  • Dialogue – conversations between the characters.

An example… This poem is a kind of horror story. Here is the beginning of the poem:

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
“Tis some visiter,” I muttered, “tapping at my chamber door
Only this and nothing more.”

Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I wished the morrow; — vainly I had sought to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow — sorrow for the lost Lenore
For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore
Nameless here for evermore.

And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me — filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;
So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating
“Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door
Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;
This it is and nothing more.”

Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
“Sir,” said I, “or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;
But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,
And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,
That I scarce was sure I heard you” — here I opened wide the door…

The main character in this poem is a man who has lost a woman he loved named Lenore. This character is also the narrator or the speaker of the poem, so he tells his own story using the word “I.” The setting of the poem is the man’s room on a bleak December night. As the poem continues, a raven, a type of black bird, comes into the man’s room, settles on top of the door frame, and refuses to leave. No matter what the man says, the bird answers with the word “Nevermore,” and the meaning becomes more and more horrifying until the man sinks into despair. This is the plot of the poem’s narrative.

Poem types – write a narrative poem!

Want to try writing a narrative poem of your own? Here are some tips:

1) For there to be a story, something has to happen or change between the beginning and the end. A happy situation is not a story. It becomes a story when a problem arises that interrupts the main character’s happiness. Similarly, a depressed character moping around his room is not a story. It becomes a story when the character decides to improve his situation… or when something happens that threatens to make his situation even worse.

2) Help readers imagine the story. Give details related to the five senses – sight, sound, touch, smell, and even taste. Be specific. Did Maria seem angry at Jeff? Instead of just saying, “she seemed angry at him,” think about what, exactly, this was like. Consider showing the evidence of Maria’s anger, instead of the conclusion. If you say, “Her jaw tightened, and she refused to look at him,” this gives the reader a stronger picture.

Poem starter:

Think of an upsetting fight or argument you had with a family member, friend, or romantic partner. What was it about? Write a poem that tells the story of whatever caused the argument.

If the argument was over a particular event, then you’re all set. You have a characters, a setting, action. If the argument was over an ongoing situation (for example, your partner didn’t participate enough in child-care), then think of or invent a particular instance of this and write about that. Hint: try not to tell readers your opinion or feelings about the situation or the other person. Instead, show all the details (the “evidence”) that will let readers figure this out on their own.

Poem types – How to write a ballad:

A ballad is a rhyming narrative poem written in a form that can be sung to music. Ballads most often use the rhyme scheme abcb. This means that in a group of four lines, the second line rhymes with the fourth one. The first and third line do not rhyme.

Here’s part of a ballad by William Blake (1757-1827). I have written the letters a, b, and c to mark the end rhymes.

The Maiden caught me in the Wild,(a)
Where I was dancing merrily;(b)
She put me into her Cabinet,(c)
And Lockd me up with a golden key.(b)

Poem types – write a ballad!

Topic ideas:

  • A time you fell in love at first sight… or thought you did.
  • A car accident.
  • A time you received bad news. Don’t tell the reader how you felt about the news. Instead, show the details of the place and situation where you heard the news, doing this in a way that expresses your feelings. Think of how, in movies, the camera zooms in on objects to create a mood.

Haiku Poetry:

Haiku is a Japanese poetry form. A haiku uses just a few words to capture a moment and create a picture in the reader’s mind. It is like a tiny window into a scene much larger than itself.

Traditionally, haiku is written in three lines, with five syllables in the first line, seven syllables in the second line, and five syllables in the third line.

Haiku example:
The last winter leaves
Clinging to the black branches
Explode into birds.

The following are typical Characteristics of haiku:

  • A focus on nature.
  • A “season word” such as “snow” which tells the reader what time of year it is.
  • A division somewhere in the poem, which focuses first on one thing, than on another. The relationship between these two parts is sometimes surprising.
  • Instead of saying how a scene makes him or her feel, the poet shows the details that caused that emotion. If the sight of an empty winter sky made the poet feel lonely, describing that sky can give the same feeling to the reader.


Sick, though I love her
even though she always lies
cherishing my bones.

Voice of nightingale
Like God’s angels, playing harp
Dwells into our hearts

The pond, blue, round, fresh
The frog jumps, breaking surface
In and wet he is

A dew drop smiles sitting on a leaf
the tree looked indulgently at the juvenile
the Great Oak secretly fumes

That quenches my thirst
Ocean vast and beautiful
But she is salty

Hamnavoe by George Mackay Brown

George Mackay BrownA favourite poem I love reading time and time again by  the Scottish Poet: George Mackay Brown – entitled Hamnavoe’

George Mackay Brown was born on the 17th October 1921 in Stromness, Orkney, Scotland.  His early writing career saw him working as a journalist for the Orkney Herald.  In 1951 he left, and attended Newbattle Abbey College and Edinburgh University, graduating with an MA in 1960.

He published two books; “Hamnavoe” a book of poems and stories and “Loaves and Fishes” exclusively poems.  In 1961 was accepted into the Roman Catholic Church, a great source of inspiration for his works.  In the latter part of the 1980’s returned to Orkney and Stromness, due to ill health, and continued writing poems, until his death on the 13th April 1996.

Hamnavoe by George Mackay Brown

My father passed with his penny letters
Through closes opening and shutting like legends
When barbarous with gulls
Hamnavoe’s morning broke

On the salt and tar steps. Herring boats,
Puffing red sails, the tillers
Of cold horizons, leaned
Down the gull-gaunt tide

And threw dark nets on sudden silver harvests.
A stallion at the sweet fountain
Dredged water, and touched
Fire from steel-kissed cobbles.

Hard on noon four bearded merchants
Past the pipe-spitting pier-head strolled,
Holy with greed, chanting
Their slow grave jargon.

A tinker keen like a tartan gull
At cuithe-hung doors. A crofter lass
Trudged through the lavish dung
In a dream of corn-stalks and milk.

In the Arctic Whaler three blue elbows fell,
Regular as waves, from beards spumy with porter,
Till the amber day ebbed out
To its black dregs.

The boats drove furrows homeward, like ploughmen
In blizzards of gulls. Gaelic fisher-girls
Flashed knife and dirge
Over drifts of herring.

And boys with penny wands lured gleams
From tangled veins of the flood. Houses went blind
Up one steep close, for a
Grief by the shrouded nets.

The kirk, in a gale of psalms, went heaving through
A tumult of roofs, freighted for heaven. And lovers
Unblessed by steeples lay under
The buttered bannock of the moon.

He quenched his lantern, leaving the last door.
Because of his gay poverty that kept
my seapink innocence
From the worm and black wind;

And because, under equality’s sun,
All things wear now to a common soiling,
In the fire of images
Gladly I put my hand
To save that day for him


1417. My heart leaps up when I behold a rainbow in the sky… ~William Wordsworth

Sacred Touches

The flower offered of itself
And eloquently spoke of God
In languages of rainbows
Perfumes, and secret silence…
-Phillip Pulfrey

Screen Shot 2017-10-14 at 4.32.43 PM.png

Almost comically what brought roses to Texas began with a “slow boat to China,” as it were. The Chinese had been cultivating roses for over 5,000 years. Then during the early 19th century, ships of the East India Company brought the repeat-blooming China roses back from the Orient to Europe. Once there the Europeans bred the China roses with their once-blooming roses. Eventually progeny of the old China roses, the once-blooming European roses, and their hybrids were brought to the Americas by the early settlers. However as time passed, the public grew to have a greater desire for the more modern roses, and nurseries stopped offering old roses. Thankfully in the last couple of decades there has been resurgence of interest in the old garden roses, and they are readily…

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Ode: Intimations Of Immortality by William Wordsworth

The Bard on the Hill


There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream,
The earth, and every common sight,
………To me did seem
…….Apparelled in celestial light,
The glory and the freshness of a dream.
It is not now as it hath been of yore;—
…….Turn wheresoe’er I may,
………By night or day.
The things which I have seen I now can see no more.


…….The Rainbow comes and goes,
…….And lovely is the Rose,
…….The Moon doth with delight
Look round her when the heavens are bare,
…….Waters on a starry night
…….Are beautiful and fair;
…..The sunshine is a glorious birth;
…..But yet I know, where’er I go,
That there hath past away a glory from the earth.


Now, while the birds thus sing a joyous song,
And while the young lambs bound
…..As to…

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William Shakespeare

I have no idea what this is (input invited), but I love the delicate little waxy flowers and the graceful curves of the stem. And doesn’t this quote from Shakespeare make you want to lie down on the bank he describes? I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, Where oxlips and the nodding […]

via Friday flowers…curves — This, that and the other thing


Development of Poetry

Medieval man writing

We can’t conclusively say when poems first started being recited, but we can state poetry is known to pre-date the written word.

Ancient cultural myths, tales and legends were passed down through history, in a form of poetic expression, which in turn would be told to the next generation.

Poetry came of age, with the introduction of reading and writing.  As poetry evolved, so did the poetic structures, into three main genres: Epic, Lyric and Dramatic poetry.

We associate poetry as the spoken word.  However, minstrels were known to take poems, add music and sing out the words, in performances throughout Europe.

It is said that the Sanskrit epic by Ramayana, written in the 3rd Century BC may have been in Latin, and contained an early form of poetry.  Columbus in 1492 used an alphabet song for letters in the alphabet, and a jingle for names in the month.

The 19th and 20th century saw a change in poetry; a new style was created by a new breed of poets.

John Keats:  English Romantic poet with a connection to physical rather than an intellectual style within his work.

William Wordsworth: English poet showed support for the French Revolution.

Thomas Hardy: English poet with deep empathy for the natural world.

William Yeats: Irish poet whose early works were based on Irish Myths and Fairy Tales, but his works became more personal in later life.

Writings of the 1930’s revolved around violence and political scandal, with links to the war.  By the end of the 1940’s, the Second World War was over, and we saw an emerging group of romantic poets, writing about the area in which they lived.  With the 1950’s came the emergence of those writing about anti-modernism and controversial in their approach, but the romantic influence had gone.

Poetry of the 1960’s was heavily influenced by the music era, for it was common place, that they were known to dive into the drug world for inspiration, to feed themselves, thus creating a new form of poetry.

Poetry of the 20th century changed so much with each generation; it evolved through influences and events of the time.  Much music written at the time was similar to early forms of poetry when words were put to music by minstrels.  The following words from the song “The Streets of London by Ralph McTell” could just as easily be read as a poem.

An Extract of Song:

Have you seen the old man
In the closed-down market
Kicking up the paper,
With his worn out shoes?
In his eyes you see no pride
Hand held loosely at his side
Yesterday’s paper telling yesterday’s news

Have you seen the old girl
Who walks the streets of London
Dirt in her hair and her clothes in rags?
She’s no time for talking,
She just keeps right on walking
Carrying her home in two carrier bags.

How would one describe poetry?  It is an artistic form, by which one uses it to express emotion, thoughts and ideas in a compressed form.  Whether it be a flourish of descriptive words or clean-cut.

Interactive layering consists of imagery, word associations and musical adaptations, to create poetry.

Poetry is a creation by the writer from the need to escape the logical form, as well as express feelings in a tight compressed manner.

Narrative and dramatic styles of poetry are used to tell stories, and feature verse composition, which are known to resemble novels and plays.

They set themselves apart from other works weaving together intricate elements of tension, complex emotion and thought, creating a refreshing style of poetry.

English and European poetry often uses rhyme; a system used for hundreds of years, such as ballads, sonnets etc.  However, much modern poetry has strayed from rhyme.  Another style is free verse poetry (Unrhymed and following no strict pattern) offering pleasing and emphasising element to a poem.

Poetry can go on to produce works in an organised fashion.  A single line can make sense.  “To be, or not to be: that is the question.” (From Hamlet by William Shakespeare)

In more recent times, electronic media has enhanced poems, and can be accessed in Weblogs as a way of expressing one’s thoughts.

There are many other forms of poetry that I have not mentioned, the list has grown much over the centuries but here are a few seen often but deserve a mention:

Elegy:         A serious reflective poem, especially one lamenting a death.

Haiku:         Epigrammatic Japanese verse form employing seventeen syllables.

Stanza:       A group of lines forming a regular metrical division within a poem.

Tercet:       A group of three lines, often connected by rhyme.

Sonnet:      Consists of fourteen lines with first and third, second and fourth lines of  each verse rhyming.


My Thoughts on Creativity

0000-poetry-guidesThe art of poetry as we have come to know it, is a form of expression, that has its history firmly rooted in the past.  For it is known to predate literacy and used to record history.

A poem is made up of a collection of words with stressed and unstressed syllables, some words offer meanings and creativeness, whilst others appear bland and cold.

We as poets try to pass over to the reader of our work, a meaning of what we are trying to say in the written word.  For each and every word, every line within the verse has its place.  For a poem arises from our soul; often calling upon memories from our past, with an insight which resonates with his or her audience.

We use our mind to create a poem with perspective, structure and a good choice of words as conveyed on each line.  We bring into play social, cultural attitudes and sometimes the news of the day.  Bring a depth of thought to follow through the words, gives a comparison, contrast and conclusions to the works.

The heart, there is nothing like it, for we use it to express emotions; from times of anger, happiness, sadness, fear and excitement.  One most important part of any poem is good observation finely tuned to life experiences.

The one thing we should always remember, when writing any poem; the first line should be designed to grab the attention of the reader, for it is a question, waiting to be answered.


How to Hook… Your Reader


The opening of your novel or short story is crucial. It must be well written, catchy, and evocative. Sometimes, no matter how hard you try, your opening doesn’t move the story forward in the proper manner. This is a reflection of an improperly framed narrative.

Many writers’ create a story, but have a fixed idea how it should work.  In their minds, the narrative doesn’t exist outside of the bounds they’ve chosen for the beginning and end. Sometimes the story is simply lacking context that might be provided by a scene that comes before the writer’s current story beginning.

Meet Your Reader:

All right, we’re ready to begin the story. First, look around and find your reader; they maybe Men? Women? or Both? From now on, those readers will be looking over your shoulder while you write. What you create should appeal to their tastes. In fact, they will help you write the story, and you will entertain them.

The concept of the reader helping you write the story is important for all of us who have problems with info dumps and other authorial intrusion problems. Readers often see themselves as a character in your story, usually the protagonist. Give them elbow room to bring their imagination into play. Let the reader contribute some of the finer details. For every two or three details you put in, make allowances for the reader’s collaboration.

With the reader on your left shoulder, it’s time to pick a place in the narrative to begin.

Show the protagonist in focus:

The protagonist is on screen and in focus. Scenery is nice but dull. Don’t get bent out of shape… We know you can write beautiful, eloquent descriptions of your lovely world. Do yourself a favour — show us later. At the beginning, simple is good…  Your focus should be on the character’s emotional and physical details and getting us into that person’s head. If you stop the story to give the reader a guided tour, you may lose them.

Establish the protagonist in context:

The focus is on the protagonist. Now, provide opportunities to establish the characters in their primary social context. Are they at odds with the world or in sync with it? Context is just like that sentence: It shows how things relate and mesh with one another. Simply put, show whether your protagonist is a round, square, or hexagonal peg — and the hole into which life is trying to fit him or her.

Offer a scene that reflects the overall book or story conflict:

The scene should mirror the overall conflict of the novel in some way. For instance, if the book is about the protagonist getting back a kidnapped child, then a good way to start might be with the character seeing a child being taken from their parents, or two parents battling over custody of the child. There is even the blunt and obvious approach: the scene where the child gets kidnapped. Your first scene sets the tone for the rest of the book.

Portray an evocative situation:

Show the protagonist in a vivid uncluttered scene, preferably doing something that is signature to that character. If he or she is awesome with a sword, but hates swordplay for some reason, that should be revealed.

Establish that the protagonist has something significant at stake

Conflict must be present in your start. Make sure something that the protagonist feels an attachment to and cares for is on the line. Blood does not have to fly. People do not have to die.

How the main characters are motivated to deal with the conflict and the establishment of a personal stake is essential to driving your story forward. These details will provide important characterization. If the character is a nature type, and the theme is man against nature, then make the conflict deal with that issue in some way. Use indirection such as depicting an incident where the character hears about it, throws back his or her chair, demands to know where the atrocity is taking place, then storms off to confront the evildoers.

In choosing a scene of conflict, we single out that person’s passion and show them grappling with it. Our demons reveal telling contrasts in our values and character. When gripped by powerful emotions, we sublimate our learned social behaviour and act as our basic nature dictates. During these moments, potential is uncovered, hidden beauty can be revealed, or ugliness unmasked. Unveiling these aspects of the protagonist exposes flaws that make them more believable people, it also provides depth and shows that person’s potential for change.

Show the rules of the world at work:

Simply because your novel will be sitting on the fantasy rack doesn’t mean you can break rules on a whim. Yes, fantasy readers will suspend disbelief to an extent. However, a wise writer will start with the most plausible fantastic elements first.

Your best tools for getting a reader to buy into your fantasy are something sacrificed for something gained, action versus reaction, cause and effect. If fantastic elements play a key role in the plot, whether derived from magic, fanciful creatures, or simply some skewed aspect of the world, then some hint of the governing rules should play a role in the opening.

If the protagonist is in some way more confined by or less bound to those rules, you need to show or give evidence of this special relationship to the reader.

Introduce story Question’s:

Every protagonist will have a question. This question may have nothing to do with the plot, but it does reflect their personal needs and motivations. (Why me? – Why am I alone? – Why did she have to die? – Why go on living?). The story creator should know this question, and by the end of the story, answer it. Make sure this is on your list of things to accomplish by the story’s end.

In every plot, there is a need line and a desire line. Characters follow their aspirations, but cannot be at peace until they’ve fulfilled their crucial life’s necessity.

Good story structure dictates that the protagonist will at some point stand at the juncture between their needs and their desires. That decision is often a turning point in the story.

Establish tone and pace:

Your opening scene sets the overall mood of your material, be it dark and gloomy, violent or whatever. This is where you play fair with the reader. If your piece on a whole is bloody and violent, then initial scene should resonate with that feeling. This is key. Rules broken for creative purposes can be effective, but this has to be done in a sensitive way; a smooth transition often works.

If something important to the protagonist is threatened, you have your conflict. What remains is to ask a story question, and to depict the character displaying their signature characteristic. Your story’s tone and pace should take care of itself simply by loading the opening paragraph with this writing approach.


Poetry Guide: The Limerick


The Limerick has become associated with Ireland; a catchy yet light verse, which consists of five lines a – a – b – b – a rhyming scheme.  It has been enjoyed these past two centuries or more, and lives within jokes, puns and quick yet short poetry verse.  It can be heard in the pub, on university campus and in nursery rhymes, and so the jovial Limerick lives on …

The Limerick form arrived on the scene, in France during the Middle Ages, crossed the English Channel and seen as a 11th century manuscript.

The lion is wondrous strong

And full of the wiles of wo;

And whether he pleye

Or take his preye

He cannot do but slo (slay)

Similar in form to that of an Irish Limmerick but the rhyme scheme of a – b – c – c – b has been used.

William Shakespeare used the Limerick style in “The Tempest, Othello and King Lear.”  Then in 1776, it appeared in publications of Mother Goose nursery rhymes, and since then has been part of children’s literature.

Edward Lear popularised the Limerick in his Book of Nonsense.  Punch magazine was created for the publication of Limerick’s.  This style of writing caught the attention of ; Alfred Lord Tennyson, Rudyard Kipling, Mark Twain and Robert Louis Stevenson, who are known to have experimented with it, and published some works.

There was an old man with a beard

Who said, it’s just how I feared!

Two owls and a hen

Four larks and a wren

Have all built their nests in my beard

(Anonymous Poet)


Limericks are fun to create: humorous, bawdy, full of folk wisdom and ever so entertaining.

The first line of any Limerick needs to start with the subject, but make sure you don’t give the intended story away.

As one crafts the first line, it should work as follows:

An unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable, followed by two unstressed syllables, followed by one stressed syllable, followed by two unstressed syllables and one stressed syllable.

It can be very confusing in the beginning, but great fun and a thesaurus at hand makes light work of it.

The second line defines the subject or consequences of past action.  Relationship between first and second line, using a rhyming form is essential.

The next two lines detail the action taken, and the final line is the punch line, a surprise twist for the ending.

When one thinks of a Limerick, it is a type of poem which can be used by advertising companies to promote products, aimed at attracting buyer’s interests…